is the region around t
he Earth's North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. The Arctic includes the Arctic Ocean (which overlies the North Pole) and parts of Canada, Greenland (a territory of Denmark), Russia, the United States (Alaska), Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Finland. The word Arctic comes from the Greek word arktos
(άρκτος) , which means bear. This is due to the location of the constellation (a group of stars) Ursa Major, the "Great Bear", above the Arctic region.
There are numerous definitions of the Arctic region. The boundary is generally considered to be north of the Arctic Circle (66° 33’N), which is the approximate limit of the midnight sun and the polar night. Other definitions are based on climate and ecology, such as the 10°C (50°F) July isotherm, which roughly corresponds to the tree line
in most of the Arctic. Socially and politically, the Arctic region
includes the northern territories of the eight Arctic states, including
Lapland, although by natural science definitions much of this territory is considered subarctic.
The Arctic region consists of a vast ice-covered ocean (which is sometimes considered to be a northern arm of the Atlantic Ocean)
surrounded by treeless, frozen ground. In recent years the extent of
the sea ice has declined, and there is some evidence suggesting Arctic
water may be ice-free in summer. Some estimates suggest an ice-free
summer Arctic by 2040, or 2100
while a more recent study accompanied by unexpected increased melting in summer 2007 estimates as soon as 2013.However
according to the Norwegian International Polar Year Secretariat the
arctic polar ice cap would be completely gone by summer 2008 Life in the Arctic includes organisms living in the ice, fish and marine mammals, birds, land animals, and human societies.
The Arctic region is a unique area among Earth's ecosystems. The
cultures in the region and the Arctic indigenous peoples have adapted
to its cold and extreme conditions.
The Arctic's climate is characterized by cold winters and cool
summers. Precipitation mostly comes in the form of snow. The Arctic's
annual precipitation is low, with most of the area receiving less than
50 cm (20 inches). High winds often stir up snow, creating the illusion
of continuous snowfall. Average winter temperatures can be as low as
-40°C (-40°F), and the coldest recorded temperature is approximately
-68°C (-90°F). Coastal Arctic climates are moderated by oceanic
influences, having generally warmer temperatures and heavier snowfalls
than the colder and drier interior areas.
Since trees cannot grow in the Arctic climate, the vegetation
is composed of plants such as dwarf shrubs, graminoids, herbs, lichens
and mosses, which all grow relatively close to the ground, forming tundra.
As one moves northward, the amount of warmth available for plant growth
decreases considerably. In the northernmost areas, plants are at their
metabolic limits, and small differences in the total amount of summer
warmth make large differences in the amount of energy available for
maintenance, growth and reproduction. Colder summer temperatures cause
the size, abundance, productivity and variety of plants to decrease. In
the warmest parts of the Arctic, shrubs are common and can reach 2 m (6
ft) in height; sedges, mosses and lichens can form thick layers. In the
coldest parts of the Arctic, much of the ground is bare; nonvascular
plants such as lichens and mosses predominate, along with a few
scattered grasses and forbs (like the Arctic poppy).
Herbivores on the tundra include the Arctic hare, lemming, muskox, and caribou. They are preyed on by the Arctic fox, wolves. The polar bear is also a predator, though it prefers to hunt for marine life from the ice. There are also many birds and marine species endemic to the colder regions.
- Snow is a good insulator.
- A long as you are shivering you will not lose a lot of body
- Spruce needles can be eaten to replace a little water and a lot
of vitamin C.
- Never panic, its not worth the trouble it will cause.
- Never sleep in snow for fun or because it is more
- Do not let yourself sweat, remove layers.
- Do not get wet or use wet cloths. You will ironically
survive longer naked.
- Birch bark will not burn if you have liquid inside it.
- Warmth and Energy go hand in hand, preserve one and you will
have the other.
- Boil all the water you collect
- When you stop shivering it means your body no longer has the
energy to combat cold on its own.
- Never build your fire directly under a needle bearing tree nor
one that has snow in its branches.
- Black feet are a bad sign and it means you did something
- Never mistake cedar for spruce, spruce is a Christmas tree,
cedar looks like plastic and is poisonous.
- Avoid eating any mushrooms as most have poisonous counterparts
that look the same.
- Overcook all arctic animals as most have tricanosis.
- Scurvy comes from a lack of vitamin C, replace it with spruce